Central Processing Unit 14 November 2009Posted by agunghardiansyah in Tak Berkategori.
Central processing unit
There are many vendor of the cpu in the market same of them are
Intel, AMD, VIA/CYRIX, Transumeta / Motorola but the most popular are Intel and AMD Athelon. The X86 CPU architecture invented by Intel is the most popular for desktop computers today all the computers run the windows_9X operating system use X86 CPU
Intel corporation manufactured various kind of CPU’s but in market the most selling CPU we are concerning. P-3 , Celeron and P-4
Celeron processor is a substitution of P-3 having same performance so Celeron is taking place of P-3.
When P-4 came the total architecture is different from P-3.
P-3 has 0.18 micron technology and the P-4 has 0.13 micron technology.
P-4 if focused on multimedia, multitasking, multithreading. This gives batter performance in gaming, internet computing speed.
SYNTAX FOR CPU RECOGNITION
Name – speed in MHz/cache (KB)/FSB
e.g. — Intel Pentium 3 -1133/256/100
CACHE MEMORY OF CPU
This is a memory associated with CPU, and often the motherboard. This is a type of memory that’s used to hold a duplicate of a larger store. This is faster than the main memory .By placing the most often accessed data in the cache memory, overall system speed increases.
Type of cache memory.
(1) L1 cache
(2) L2 cache
L1 CACHE MEMORY (LEVEL 1 CACHE)
This is closet to the CPU is the level 1 or L1 since 80486 an L1 cache has been built in to the CPU itself. This cache run at the CPU’s internal speed and so is very fast.
Celeron ———- L1 cache is 16KB+16KB
Pentium 3 ——- L1 cache is 16KB+16KB
AMD athlon—– L1 cache is 128KB
Since L1 cache is part of the CPU it can’t be expanded or replaced.
L2 CACHE MEMORY (LEVEL 2 CACHES)
A L2 cache is more copious than an L1 cache, but it’s also slower. For CPU after Pentium Processor this is coated on the CPU package.
CPU L2 CACHE SIZE
AMD ATHLON 512KB
Placing the L2 cache on the CPU module improves performance relative to putting it on the motherboard largely because the cache can operate at a faster speed.
FSB (FRONT SIDE BUS)/ CPU BUS
Modern CPU’S run at two separate speeds: the core speed and the bus speed. The core speed is the no. associate most strongly with the CPU and is the speed at which most of CPU circuitry runs. The bus speed is the speed of interface between CPU and the motherboard. Now a days bus speed range from 66 MHz
To theoretical maximum of 400 MHz for slot A.(Main socket).
In order to set the CPU core speed motherboard includes jumpers or BIOS settings to specify a clock multiplier. The CPU runs its core at the bus speed multiplied by the clock multiplier.
E.g. 113.3MHz bus speed with a 10X clock gives CPU speed 1133 MHz(core speed).
+Vcc supply to CPU is +5v and V core = 1.7 v.
As the CPU speed increases it becomes desirable to reduce the CPU voltage. In order to reduce the heat buildup inside the chips. For cooling a heat sink fan is mounted on the CPU.